## Sunday, January 6, 2013

### Divisibility by 13, and a general method for any prime number.

Here's something you already know. 10 = 5 × 2. Because of this well known fact, all we have to do is check the last digit of any number to decide whether a number is divisible by 2 (last digit even) or divisible by 5 (last digit 0 or 5).

For any other prime number, the method for divisibility will be like this.

Step 1: Split the number into two new numbers: the last digit and all the rest.
Step 2: Multiply the last digit by some special number. (This number is dependent on which prime we are using.) Then add this multiplied value to the value we are calling "the rest".
Step 3: Check to see if you can tell if this new value is divisible by the prime in question. If you cannot tell yet, go back to step 1 and continue until you get a number where you can tell.

Examples

Divisibility by 3: The special number we multiply the last digit by is 1. (Nice and easy.)
Divisibility by 7: The special number we multiply the last digit by is 5.
Divisibility by 11:  The special number we multiply the last digit by is 10.
Divisibility by 13: The special number we multiply the last digit by is 4.

(Finding the special number is done by understanding number theory. What we are looking for is the number we multiply by 10 so that the remainder when we divide by the prime is 1.)

Okay, let's look at 5,280, the number of feet in a mile, and see if it is divisible by 3, 7, 11 or 13. (It should be obviously that it is divisible by 2 and divisible by 5.)

Divisible by 3.
1. Split 5280 into 528 and 0. Multiply 0 by 1 and add to 528, which gives us 528. 528 is a little too big, so let's do the method again.
2. Split 528 into 52 and 8. Multiply 8 by 1 and add to 52, which gives us 60. 60 is divisible by 3, so the original number 5,280 is also divisible by 3.

Divisible by 7.
1. Split 5280 into 528 and 0. Multiply 0 by 5 and add to 528, which gives us 528. 528 is a little too big, so let's do the method again.
2. Split 528 into 52 and 8. Multiply 8 by 5 and add to 52, which gives us 92. Still a little to big to see divisibility by 7 easily, so one more step.
3. Split 92 into 9 and 2. Multiply 2 by 5 and add to 9 to get 19.  19 is not divisible by 7, so the original number 5,280 is also not divisible by 7.

Divisible by 11.
1. Split 5280 into 528 and 0. Multiply 0 by 10 and add to 528, which gives us 528. 528 is a little too big, so let's do the method again.
2. Split 528 into 52 and 8. Multiply 8 by 10 and add to 52, which gives us 132. Still too big, so one more step.
3. Split 132 into 13 and 2. Multiply 2 by 10 and add to 13, which gives us 33.  33 is obviously divisible by 11, so 5,280 is also divisible by 11.

Divisible by 13.
1. Split 5280 into 528 and 0. Multiply 0 by 4 and add to 528, which gives us 528. 528 is a little too big, so let's do the method again.
2. Split 528 into 52 and 8. Multiply 8 by 4 and add to 52, which gives us 84. Not crystal clear, so let's go one more step.
3. Split 84 into 8 and 4. Multiply 4 by 4 and add to 8, which gives us 24. 24 is not divisible by 13, since 2 × 13 = 26. This means the original number 5,280 is not divisible by 13.

Tomorrow: Relatively prime.

1. This rocks! Thank you so much!

2. How the special number are obtained for primes and odd numbers above 13 and how it spl num are derived

thx

1. What we want is (special number x 10) = (k x prime) + 1. For 13, 4 x 10 = 40 and 39 = 3 x 13, so dividing 40 by 13 gives us a remainder of 1.

For any prime, there is a lowest integer, which I call the special number, such that (10 x special number) = (multiple of prime) + 1.

Hope this helps.

2. Thank You �� very much

3. Thanks a lot. Very helpful.